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Citing Electronic Information: Guides

see also: Citation Format Guides | Search Engines | Print Resources


Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 5th Ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2001. See "Electronic Media," pp.268-281. An excerpt of the section is available online.

Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. 2nd ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1998. Refer to the MLA website for a brief introduction to citing web-based information in MLA Style.

Li, Xia; Crane, Nancy B. Electronic Styles: a Handbook for Citing Electronic Information Medford, NJ: Information Today, 1996. (APA and MLA formats)

Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. 6th Ed. rev. by John Grossman and Alice Bennet. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996. Sections 8.141.

Online Resources
Only the Print or Official Resources above can be considered authoritative.

APA Publication Manual Crib Sheet
Russ Dewey: "This page is a summary of rules for using APA style ... updated in January 2003 by Doc Scribe. I have made every effort to keep this document accurate, but readers have occasionally pointed out errors and inconsistencies which required correction. I am grateful to them and invite additional feedback."


APA Style Electronic Formats
Mary Ellen Guffey: "The following formats and examples are offered as models for references that might appear in the text and in the “References” section (bibliography) of a business writer's research paper."


Beyond the MLA Handbook: Documenting Electronic Sources on the Internet
Andrew Harnack and Gene Kleppinger: "Responding to the needs of writers, teachers, students, and scholars using the MLA style of documentation, professional organizations and researchers are in the process of creating citation conventions that seek to demonstrate efficient and unambiguous reference to Internet sources. Going beyond the limited recommendations in The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (1995), Janice Walker's "MLA-Style Citations for Electronic Sources ... "


Chicago Manual of Style
In 1906, the first edition of The Chicago Manual of Style was published by the University of Chicago. Over the past one hundred years, the Manual has been revised and edited fourteen times, and is now in its fifteenth edition. On this site, visitors may register for free and gain access to the search tool for this latest edition. While this feature is certainly helpful, there are a number of equally useful aspects of the site. The first is the area that gives a number of examples of Chicago-style documentation, such as the humanities style and the well-known author-date system. Equally helpful is the "Q&A" section where the editors answer such timely questions as "If someone has a PhD and is a professor at a university, is their title Doctor or Professor?"


Citing ElectronicIinformation in History Papers
Maurice Crouse: "I recommend that you consider the styles described below, in which I seek to make forms borrowed from various sources compatible with Turabian's traditional styles for history."


Citing Internet Resources
"Classroom Connect developed the following method to help students cite Internet sources as accessed through their Internet browsers. This method makes it easy for educators to check the veracity of every online source their students cite. We've also included new information specifying how to cite the graphics, sounds, and video clips students retrieve for use in their multimedia presentations. "


Citing Online Sources: Advice on Online Citations Formats
by Michael Quinion: "This is a suggested format for citing the most common types of online material in printed texts ..."


Citing Records in the National Archives of the United States
"The guidelines cover citations to textual records, microform records, nontextual archives (i.e., photographic records, posters, motion pictures, tape recordings, cartographic records, and architectural drawings), electronic records, and online references" held by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA).


Citing Government Information Sources Using MLA Style
Audrey Jean Haight, Patrick Ragains, and Vicky York. "The citations on this page are recommended samples only, and have not been approved by the editorial board of the Modern Language Association. Consult your instructor or editor for the appropriate citation style. For further explanation and more sample citations, see Joseph Gibaldi, The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers , 4th ed."


Clifford's Advice on Notes
Dale Clifford: "Preparing notes need not be the arcane, frightening task it often appears to be. Just keep in mind the purpose of notes: they aid your reader to understand and assess what you have written. Because they contain both information and documentation, notes are an integral part of a good research paper, meant to be read with it."


Columbia Guide to Online Style
by Janice R. Walker and Todd Taylor. "a guide to locating, translating, and using the elements of citation for both a humanities style (i.e., MLA and Chicago ) and a scientific style ( APA and CBE ) for electronically-accessed sources. The unique element approach used makes this a useful reference book for citing electronic sources regardless of the specific bibliographic style you may be required to use."


Introduction to Basic Legal Citation (LII 2003 ed.)
Peter W. Martin (Cornell Law School). "Most recently revised on July 11, 2003 to include coverage of executive orders and proclamations and provide more accurate guidance on in-state citations in Arizona, Illinois, New Mexico, and Texas. Being online, its further revision is not restricted by any rigid publication cycle."


ISO International Standard 690-2: Excerpts: Information and documentation -- Bibliographic references -- Part 2 Electronic documents or parts thereof
"These excerpts from ISO 690, Part 2 show the basic specifications for data elements and their prescribed order in bibliographic references to electronic documents. This International Standard was prepared by ISO Technical Committee (TC) 46, Subcommittee (SC) 9 which develops International Standards for the identification and description of information resources.


"MLA: Frequently Asked Questions about MLA Style
The only ones available on the Internet that are authorized by the Modern Language Association of America.


"A suite of interactive tools designed to aid students and professionals with their online research. From selecting a search engine and finding some relevant sources, to citing those sources in MLA or APA style, NoodleTools makes online research easier!"


Online! A Reference Guide to Using Internet Sources.

Andrew Harnack and Eugene Kleppinger. Provides detailed guidance on the APA, MLA, Chicago, and CBE styles.


Uncle SAM: Brief Guide to Citing Government Publications
Government Publications Department, University of Memphis. "The form of the citation is not sacrosanct but is used for uniformity and is a valuable tool for communication. This guide provides examples of the most common examples of government document citations."


Uncle SAM: Online Citation Guides
Government Publications Department, University of Memphis. "There has yet to be a definitive set of formats available that provide guidelines for the citing of electronic resources that appear on the Internet. However, there are numerous Web sites that provide interpretations of the basic styles such as MLA, APA, and Turabian. Below are listed a collection of online citation guides that provide many examples of these various styles."