Libraries Policies: Cataloging Policies
Terminology for Technical Services and Databse Activities and Stattistics
Consistent use of accepted terminology is essential to effective communication about technical services activities, and to accurate statistics. Certain terms must be used in particular ways in order to comply with outside record-keeping requirements. Over time, different terms may be used to describe certain activities. Over time, the meaning of terms may be misinterpreted or misunderstood. The following terms are or have been used to describe certain technical services activities, and to describe record-keeping categories.
- Added Copies
Copies of a bibliographic item beyond the first. Added copies may be acquired at the same time as the first, or they may be acquired later. Whether acquired at the same time or later, they are counted as "added copies" on technical services statistics and must have the same call number. Copy numbers are assigned sequentially throughout the system, except Serials' copy numbers, which are specific to Location. The term "extra copies", which used to denote copies beyond copy one, acquired at the same time as copy one, is no longer used.
In order to be counted as a copy of a particular bibliographic item, an item must be reflected as an added copy in the holdings of the same cataloging record.
See also Volumes Added
- Added Volumes
Physical pieces beyond the first piece of a multi-part bibliographic item. Added volumes may be acquired at the same time as the first, or may be acquired after the first piece(s) have been cataloged. Whether acquired at the same time or later, they are counted as "added volumes" on technical services statistics. The term "extra volumes", which used to denote items beyond the first acquired at the same time as the first, is no longer used.
Added volumes are reflected in the holdings and, depending on the circumstances, may also be reflected in the Physical Description Area of same cataloging record as the first volume.
The term "volumes" is used to mean "physical pieces", whether the piece in question is a videocassette, a book, a serial volume, a poster, etc. BUT minor pieces, such as might be represented following a + in the Physical Description Area, are not included in the piece count.
Microform units are counted in a separate statistical category.
See also Volumes Added
- Added Edition
No longer used. See Other Edition.
Separate cataloging records representing parts of a multi-part bibliographic entity. The parts may or may not be physically separate. An analytic record created counts as one title cataloged. The number of added volumes varies.
Example: A microform set may contain 300 titles on 45 fiche. If all titles are cataloged, the count is 300 analytics, and 45 microform units.
Example: A single volume contains four independent works bound together. Each work is represented by a separate analytic record. The count is four analytics, and one volume added.
If analytics are being prepared for a previously unanalyzed set, "added volumes" are not counted, since pieces had previously been counted as being part of the collection.
Analytics are counted in order to track work performed and records added to the catalog. Because of the unpredictable relationship between analytics created and volumes added, analytics are counted as a distinct subgroup of "titles cataloged".
- Bibliographic Record
That part of the cataloging record that includes physical description of a title and provides intellectual access to it through author, series, title, subject, entry fields. See also Cataloging Record, Item Record, Holdings
- Call Number
The alphanumeric designation assigned to a title or piece that uniquely identifies it. Most call numbers are composed of a classification number, which relates to an item's subject content, plus one or a selection of the following:
- various Cutter numbers derived from authorship or title
- copy or volume designation
- location designation
The term cancellation is used only in reference to activities that involve real or potential financial transactions. Fines, Orders, Subscriptions, Memberships, etc. may be cancelled. Cf. Withdrawal, Deletion. In the past, the term "cancellation" has been used to mean cancellation, withdrawal, and deletion. This usage is discontinued, and stamps, documentation, etc. that reflect it are gradually being replaced.
- Classification Number
That segment of the call number that is assigned from the classification scheme, usually denoting subject content.
The process and result of creating a cataloging record for a book, journal, map, or any other bibliographic entity. Cataloging serves a variety of purposes, including inventory control and item identification, as well as providing information sufficient for library users to locate materials that meet their information needs. For ARL statistical purposes, a title is not considered to have been "added to the collection" until it has been cataloged, or some other finding aid has been created for it.
- Cataloging Record
The body of information created to serve in the library's catalog as a surrogate for the item itself. In a manual environment, the cataloging record is the "main entry card", that is, the version of the catalog card that filed under the main entry. In an automated catalog, the term "cataloging record" is often used to encompass all the separate records and record segments that contain data relating to a particular title, including the bibliographic record, the item record, and the holdings.
The concepts of "the collection" and "in the collection" are essential to understanding certain statistics. For the purposes of keeping Technical Services statistics, "the collection" is the body of materials acquired by the Libraries for its patrons and made available for their use, that are cataloged or otherwise represented in some Library-specific finding aid. An item is not considered "in the collection" until it is represented in the catalog, or other library-specific or library-customized finding aid. An item is not "in the collection" if it is not available for use by patrons.
- Content Designation
Machine codes and tags. The process and result of applying machine codes and tags to bibliographic and other cataloging records.
- Copy Cataloging
Preparing a cataloging record for a title, using as the basis for the record an existing record for the same or related title. Not all cataloging for which an existing record is found is counted as copy cataloging. An existing cataloging record almost always needs some modification in order for it to be incorporated into the local catalog. Depending on the extent of modification and checking required to bring the record to an acceptable level of quality, the cataloging may be counted as "original", "part original", or "new": Cf. Original Cataloging,
The removal from the local database of bibliographic, authority or related records or record segments. Record deletion is one step in the process of withdrawal. Cf. Cancellation, Withdrawal. A record deletion is a special category of record modification. Cf. Modification
- Extra Copies
No longer used. See Added Copies
- Extra Volumes
No longer used. See Added Volumes
The term format may be legitimately used to refer to several different concepts.
For statistical purposes, "format" almost always refers to the physical material type. (e.g. book, map, videocassette, score).
Certain physical types of materials (e.g. books), or groups of types (e.g. maps, globes and atlases; scores and sound recordings; etc.), and certain other materials characterized by type of publication (e.g. serials); or other characteristic (e.g. books) are grouped together for purposes of machine coding, and handled according to rules of a particular "MARC Format". "Format" in this instance refers to a particular publication, and to the machine code that it sets out.
The words "MARC format", used generally, are taken to indicate the standardized form of record content and content designation as set out in any of the MARC publications. Local systems, bibliographic networks, and vendors all have their own slightly variant versions of the USMARC format.
What the library owns ("holds"). Although the term may be used to refer generally either to intellectual entities ("works" or "titles") or physical pieces, the primarily emphasis for the purpose of statistics is on physical pieces. Holdings are represented in cataloging records in summary or detailed fashion. For monographs, detailed holdings information is in the item record. For serial publications, holdings are recorded in the serials check-in record.
- Item Record
That part of the cataloging record that contains data related to individual physical items. See also Holdings.
Changes to the content or content designation of bibliographic, authority, or related records or record segments are termed "modifications". Modification may entail correction of incorrect data, addition of data, or updating of data, but for statistical purposes, all are termed "modification". The most drastic type of record modification is deletion. Deletions are counted separately. Cf. Deletion
- New Cataloging
Cataloging that involves creating a new OCLC record based on a reasonably good record for a variant or related version/edition of a work, is termed "new". In statistical summaries, "new" cataloging is included in the "original" count, because it involves creation of a new cataloging record, for which we receive "original" credit from OCLC. Cf. Original Cataloging
- Original Cataloging
Cataloging titles for which no bibliographic records exist, or for which the only records that exist are poor quality, scanty, or for related versions/editions of the work in hand, or for which field-by-field examination and verification is required.
Cataloging performed in the absence of any record is termed "fully" or "full" original. This is not a separate statistical category.
Cataloging that requires extensive modification of an existing record (as when the existing record is of poor quality or is very brief) is considered original cataloging, because the existing copy was of little or no help.
Cataloging that involves upgrading a record for contribution to NCCP (National Cooperative Cataloging Program), is counted as original, because each field must be examined and verified for adherence to NCCP standards.
Cataloging that involves addition of a call number and/or addition or correction of subject headings is performed by Original Catalogers, and counted as "part original" (because only part must be supplied)
See also New Cataloging. Cf. Copy Cataloging
- Other Edition
A title new to the collection, where another edition of the same work in the same or analogous physical format is already in the collection. "Other edition" as a category has relevance only for acquisitions processes. The term is not used in cataloging statistics, because from a cataloging and inventory point of view, "another edition" is a "new title". "Other Edition" used to be called "Added Edition". Because of the confusion with "added copies" and "added volumes", which refer to physical pieces of the same bibliographic entity, the term "added edition" is being phased out and replaced with "Other Edition". The term "added edition" may still be found on order slips, instructions, etc. Cf. Work.
- Part Original Cataloging
See Original Cataloging
Extensive modification to an existing bibliographic record. Reasons for recataloging vary. Except in rare and narrowly defined instances, titles recataloged are a distinct subgroup of "titles cataloged", but are not reflected in "volumes added", because the number of volumes in the Libraries' collections does not change.
Example of an exception: Two items previously bound together, and cataloged as one title in a single record are separated, and each new physical piece is now cataloged as a separate title. This counts as one title recataloged, one title cataloged and one volume added. The reasoning is as follows: There used to be one cataloging record and one piece. Now there are two cataloging records and two pieces. The net gain to the database is one record. The net gain to the collection is one piece. The cataloging work performed is two records, one of which is counted as "recataloging"
- Titles Cataloged
For statistical purposes, a "title" is a bibliographic entity described in its own bibliographic record. Cf. Work
Transfer refers to the reassignment of a cataloged item or title from one designated location to another. e.g. Transfer from Math-Physics to Science. Transfer involves modification of bibliographic and item records, and relabelling. Transfer does not usually involve reclassification. Reclassification does not usually involve transfer. Relocation of items without alteration of the permanent location designation, such as moving an item from behind a branch library's reference desk to its general shelves, is not considered a transfer.
The term volume is used to mean "physical piece" or item, whether the piece in question is a videocassette, a book, a serial volume, a poster, a map, etc. Pieces are counted by physical format (i.e. x books, y videocassettes, z scores, etc.)
NOTE THAT minor pieces, such as component pieces of a "kit", individual pieces in a single package (such as 2 CDs in the same "jewelbox", separate plates in a portfolio, or pieces such as might be represented following a + in the Physical Description Area (maps in pockets, computer disks in pockets, etc.) are not considered "volumes" for the purposes of ARL record keeping, and are not included in the piece count.
- Volumes Added
Physical pieces added to the collections. This is an ARL-defined statistical category. In order to be considered added to the collections, an item must be reflected by holdings in a cataloging record. Volumes added encompasses:
First pieces cataloged (for monographs)
Pieces in addition to the first acquired at the same time, whether added copies or added volumes
Pieces in addition to the first acquired after the first has been cataloged. Includes both added copies and volumes.
Bound serial volumes. Individual serial issues, if they are intended to be bound, are not included. Unless serial volumes are bound when they are acquired, they are not counted until they are returned from the commercial binder.
The term withdrawal refers to the removal of an item from the collection and the inventory. The process of withdrawal includes modification and sometimes deletion of bibliographic and item records, as well as removal or overstamping, etc. of marks of ownership. Cf. Cancellation, Deletion. For the purposes of statistics, both titles count and a volume count are kept. In the past, some withdrawals were counted only as records modified. The withdrawal count, however, is a count of bibliographic entities (titles) and pieces (volumes). Modification of records is a necessary by-product of the withdrawal process.
- Work A distinct intellectual product, such as a novel, a map, a symphony, etc. Although a work may often by contained in a particular physical package (a book, a score), it is not dependent on the format of the package. The same symphony, for instance, may be "contained" in a score, a CD, or a videocassette. The work is reflected in the choice and form of access points (including title, uniform title, etc.). The "container" is reflected in the physical description and holdings. Each different "container" of a work comprises a different bibliographic entity, which must be reflected by a distinctive bibliographic record. Such entities are referred to as "titles". Cf. Title