Conservation Needs Assessment Manual
Terms and Definitions
This symbol appears in the detailed instructions for completing the Survey Form (SF1, paper based items). It is hyper-linked to specific instructions for completing the rest of the form.
Acidic paper: Composition of the paper is not acid-free (i.e. pH is less than 6.8). The pH test pen creates a yellow mark. If the paper is non-acidic, the pH test pen leaves a purple mark when dry.
Acidic Cover (condition of cover): The cover of a pam bound item or paperback item is acidic. (i.e. pH pen leaves yellow mark when dry). No need to test other types of covers.
Acidic Protective Cover or Enclosure Condition: Box, wrap, slip case or portfolio enclosure (with or without flaps) is acidic. This does not apply to dust covers. The pH pen leaves a yellow mark when dry. Look for this particularly with unfitted commercial slipcases and local slipcases made of exposed board.
Animal Damage to Cover or Pages: Usually will consist of chewing, teeth marks, or claw marks. Not caused by bugs (see Bug Damage, below). Animals most likely to cause damage to books are mice or dogs.
Asian Case: Similar to a portfolio style box, Asian cases have 4 (or more) sections that wrap aroung the item(s) being enclosed. These are usually constructed of rigid board and covered with fabric or paper. The flaps are secured by bone clasps which may not wear well in a library environment. These cases are somewhat unique compared to the types of enclusures in the Libraries' collections and can require special types of repair. Be sure to check these for acidity. See photos: Record these protective enclusures as "asian case" under Other – specify (Additional Protective Covering).
Asian or Coptic Stitch: Asian stitch consists of a method of side-stitching that is done by hand rather than by machine. Stitches are usually exposed. Coptic stitch consists of external, interlocking stitches. Go to Artistic Revolutions for a picture of one type of Coptic stitch. These are recorded under Leaf Attachment - Other-Specify since they are hand sewn and require different repair methods.
Attachments or Inclusions: Items that have been included in or with a book. “Attachments” usually means foldouts or centerfolds. Other inclusions are typically audio or video cassettes, computer diskettes (3-1/4 or 5 1/2 floppy disk), CDs or DVDs. Ideally, inclusions will be secured in a pocket attached to the book or enclosure (if there is one). If they are not, complete part “C. What needs to be done” as usual, but place the items on the Secondary Review Shelves.
Audio Cassette: An audio cassette.
Bad fit - Protective Cover Or Enclosure Condition: Box or enclosure is too tight (may be damaging book) or too loose (more than 1/2 inch extra width, length or depth). Be careful since warped, uneven items may need some extra space in box. Item should not wiggle back and forth significantly in the enclosure or be cramped in enclosure.
Barcodes: Barcodes (or OCR numbers) are attached to each catalogued item. They are used for searching the catalog, checking items in or out, and other inventory management. Sometimes they are attached inappropriately (see Processing Damage). It used to be standard practice to cut out “old” barcodes. Please mark these as mutilation under Page Condition. Cause of damage is “Processing damage – other” and make a note in D. Comments: “barcode cut out”
Boards loose or detached - Cover Condition: Board(s) detached or torn at joint, not just at hinge. This applies to paperbacks when the front and/or back cover is detached or partly detached from the spine and the text block.
Book: Hey! You know what “a book” is don’t you? A group of paper signatures or pages bound together with some method to form…well…a book! For the purposes of this survey form, does not include a pamphlet, portfolio, unbound pages or audio/visual item.
Book Repair – in house (Past Preservation Actions): In-house book repair has been performed in the past. This does not include pam binding, thermal binding, rebinding or recasing performed by the Library – these are counted elsewhere. It can include any Level 1 or Level 2 Book Repairs. In addition, include acidic slipcases made in Book Repair. Patron attempts at repair are counted under "Patron." Consider the condition of the repair. If it is failing or was poorly done, then the original damage still exists.
For instance, if a spine mend with tape is peeling off, the spine damage under the mend should be noted (under cover condition) and a repair recommended under C.2.
Also, if page replacements have been tipped in, evaluate the quality of the replacement.
● Is the text legible? Are the illustrations clear enough to be used? If the replacement is poor quality, it might need to be redone.
● Most older page replacement were done on acidic paper. This can affect the surrounding pages. Please check older tip-ins for acidity when the rest of the paper is non-acidic. If the replacement pages are acidic, recommend page replacement and use D. Comments to explain.
Book Repair Level 1: Types of book repair than can be completed in 15 minutes or less (on average). This includes, but is not necessarily limited to:
● Page repair (up to 10 pages)
● Tip-in (up to 5 non-contiguous pages)
● Hinge mend glue front and/or back. (this is Level 2 if the hinges also need tape)
● Hinge mend tape front and/or back. (this is Level 2 if the hinges also need glue)
● Spine Repair with tape
● Mend 1 text block break.
● Clean cover
● Make or attach pocket for inclusion(s)
● Erase a few pages of pencil marking
● Remove a few post-its
· Cut open a few pages
Book Repair Level 2: Types of book repair that require more than 15 but less than 2 hours to complete (on average). This includes, but is not necessarily limited to:
● 2 or more Level 1 repairs on the same item. (It is still Level 1 if the only repairs needed are front and back Hinge mend with tape or hinge mend with glue. However, if a book needs both glue and tape hinge mends, count it as Level 2.)
● Page repair (10 pages or more)
● Page replacement, replace inclusion, missing pages, or mutilated pages (involves Inter-Library Loan, photocopying and trimming replacement pages. Page replacements also must be tipped in - see below. If there are more than 10 pages with color or illustrations OR more than 20 text only pages to be replaced, the item should be C.3. Significant Damage - Referred.
● Tip-in (6 to 10 non- contiguous pages):
● Other mends that will take 16 minutes to 2 hours.
- Mend 2-3 text block breaks (but if the threads are broken as well, refer the item.)
- Erasing many pages of pencil marking
- Cutting open all pages in a large book
- Removing a kazillion post-its
Book Repair – Level 3: Any book repair or combination of repairs that would require more than 2 hours (total) to complete.
Box – paper board: An enclosure or box made of corrugated board or heavy paper stock and not covered with buckram or cloth. These boxes might have a strip of buckram on the spine with the book title and/or call number. See examples in the Assessment Project Reference Library.
Box – Special (C.4. Secondary Review Results - type of action): An enclosure or box made in house to protect unusual or fragile items. It might be a Local Box - Manila or a modified rigid board box.
Box – Vendor (C.4. Secondary Review Results - type of action): Any type of enclosure or box ordered from a vendor to protect unusual or fragile items.
Brittle Book Analysis – Boxed or Archival Photocopy: Brittle Book Analysis means that a brittle or unbindable book has been carefully analyzed to determine whether the items should be kept, replaced, restored, or simply boxed. The goal of a brittle book review is to preserve the individual item or to preserve the intellectual contents of an item. Brittle Book Analysis might result in a variety of actions such as withdrawal and/or replacement of an item or referral to a conservator. (See Brittle/Unbindable Books Procedure for more information) If an item has been "boxed" or replaced by an archival photocopy, then it has been through a brittle book review.
Archival Photocopy: A high quality photocopied reproduction of a book. These can be identified by an inscription at the front or back of the book. The inscription will state that the book is an archival copy. We will not include commercial “reprints” or UMI photocopies (sometimes from microfilm) that sometimes look similar.
Boxed: A brittle or unbindable book in a custom fit, acid-free, commercially made box. Books in enclosures made by Book Repair will have been designated as “Local Box - Manila” under Protective Cover. . .).
Test (Double Fold):
Choose a page approximately 1/3 of the way inside the text block that does
not have any illustrations or special qualities. Do not do this on any item
that might be a candidate for special collections or original work [one-of-a-kind]
or artist’s book. If in doubt, do not perform the test, but place the
item on the Questions shelf with a note. “The standard test is to
fold a small corner of a page or leaf about 3/8 inch from the tip of the
corner to the fold; crease it; fold it forward and press the fold
firmly. Fold the corner backward along the same crease, and press
firmly again. Repeat the process again for a total of four folds, i.e.,
two forward and two backward. If the tip of the page breaks off easily,
at or before the fourth fold, the paper is too brittle and fragile to
withstand a library binding and other means should be found to conserve
it.” Merrill-Oldham, Jan and Paul Parisi. Guide to the Library
Binding Institute Standard for Library Binding. (Chicago
Brittle/Unbindable Analysis (C.4. Secondary Review Results - type of action): A book with pages that are too brittle for commercial binding or a damaged book that cannot be repaired and cannot be rebound due to narrow margins, a special cover, or it is just too badly damaged. This action can be selected in combination with what we assume will be the outcome (i.e. box, SPC, replace, archival copy, digitize, withdraw, and so on) or with “Conservator.”
Brittle with little to no damage (C.1) (SF1-Referred form): Item has brittle paper, but otherwise is in fairly good condition. It does not need repairs, although it might be very worn or dirty, have mild damage to the pages, and so on. See "When to Refer" in the Detailed instructions for form SF1. This is one of the reasons for referring an item for secondary review by a staff member.
Brittle with moderage damage (C.2) (SF1-Referred form): Item has brittle paper, but otherwise is in fairly good condition. It needs more than two or three repairs. See "When to Refer" in the Detailed instructions for form SF1. This is one of the reasons for referring an item for secondary review by a staff member.
Brittle with significant damage (C.3) (SF1 - Referred form): Item has brittle paper, but otherwise is in fairly good condition. It needs multiple repairs or the paper has deteriated to the point that it is crumbling, See "When to Refer" in the Detailed instructions for form SF1. This is one of the reasons for referring an item for secondary review by a staff member.
Broken Hinge: One or both hinges are completely separated from text block, but joint is intact. If joint is broken too, see “Boards loose or detached.” For this survey, Broken Hinge also applies if the hinge is broken between the fly leaf or next page and the text block.
Broken Text Block: There is a crack within the text block or the text block is broken in the gutter. Pages may or may not be loose. If there is only one text block break, recommend a level 1 repair. Two or three breaks count as a level 2 repair. An item with more than three breaks and/or broken threads should be referred for Secondary Review
Buckram: A heavy-weave cotton cloth filled, impregnated, or coated with different compounds (mainly, starch and pyroxylin but also other materials) to enhance body, finish, and durability. Almost all books with a Buckram cover have been rebound, but there are a few exceptions. (Definition is from the Book Arts Web) Looks a bit like vinyl. See example in Assessment Project Reference Library.
Bug Damage: Pages or cover show evidence of bug damage. Most likely from a “book worm”(tobacco beetle). Bug damage includes Roaching.
Burst Signatures: Similar to Sewn Signatures except that, instead of being sewn together, the signatures are glued together through small notches in the folds. Also similar to Perfect binding, however the folded edge of each signature is not removed prior to gluing. These are identifiable by lack of sewing, no presence of thread.
Coated Paper: Coated paper is a type of paper coated with white clay or a similar substance to provide a smooth surface. It is used to provide a smooth surface for printing detailed illustrations. The finish is often glossy but can be dull. (definition is from the Book Arts Web) The coating makes the paper test alkaline. No need to test with pen, but if you are not sure, a pen test will usually result in an indistinct yellow/purple color.
Conservation: Any process that involves
the use of chemicals (other than paste or glue), a fume hood, specialized lab
equipment, or magnification. See Conservator.
Conservator (Secondary Review - What Needs to be done): Select "Conservator" for any treatment that requires the use of a fume hood or advanced book repair from sewing signatures through fine binding. This does not include mass de-acidification, but would include de-acidification of a single document (manuscripts or maps, for instance). Any treatment of special collection materials including archives, photographs (other than simple re-housing), art books, objects or textiles requires a conservator. Any treatment for a high-value item (over $500) requires a conservator's review and/or action.
A conservator might supervise these activities or other repair activities rather than perform the actual work. In addition, an item might be referred to a conservator for assessment of possible preservation actions.
Damage from light (Cover Condition): Distinct fading of cover or spine from light. Spine will be significantly lighter than cover or a mark may be visible where one part of cover has been shielded from light by other books and the exposed part is faded.
Damaged (Attachments or Inclusions Condition): Attachments or inclusions of any type are damaged.
Damaged Hinge: The hinge is damaged but not completely broken from text block. If the hinge is still attached at all, it is considered damaged, not broken. For this survey, “damaged hinge” also means that damage between the fly leaf or next page and text block will be considered a damaged hinge. Often strings are exposed, or may be breaking, but not completely broken. Damaged hinge applies to paper backs only when the boards are still attached to the spine, but the cover is partially detached from the text block (e.g. it looks like it could easily be glued back on).
Damaged (Protective Cover or Enclosure Condition): The enclosure (either commercial or in-house box) is damaged to the point where protection of the enclosed item is compromised or it may damage other parts of collection (for instance, it is dirty).
Dirty: Dirty to the point where cover information is obscured, book is unappealing to handle or may be a risk to other books in the collection (might make adjacent books dirty). Dirt would include food or drink damage but not simple water. Not the same as Worn.
Double fan adhesive: Method of attaching pages to spine. There are no signatures and single sheets are glued in. When the book is opened it will lay flat as opposed to perfect bound books that will not lay flat when open. NOTE: Check several spots to verify that it will lay flat at any point in the book. Do not rely on your results when you only open the book near its center. See Acme Bookbinding “Methods of Leaf Attachment” for a description of the process.
Double Fold Test: See Brittle test, above.
Double Tray Enclosure: An enclosure (box) with two trays connected by a spine. Also known as a clam shell because of the way it closes. Go to the Assessment Project Reference Library for examples. NOTE: This term is not used on the assessment forms. It is included here for reference.
Double Tray – Corrugated: An enclosure (box) with two trays connected by a spine made of corrugated board (grey or cream color). These are not covered by buckram, but may have a buckram spine. Also known as a clam shell because of the way it closes. Go to the Assessment Project Reference Library for examples. NOTE: This term is not used on the assessment forms. It is included here for reference.
Double Tray – Double Board: An enclosure (box) with two trays connected by a spine. Also known as a clam shell because of the way it closes. Double board and rigid board are buckram or cloth covered, with double board being thicker and heavier, often for larger items. Go to the Assessment Project Reference Library for examples. NOTE: This term is not used on the assessment forms. It is included here for reference.
Double Tray – Rigid Board: An enclosure (box) with two trays connected by a spine. Also known as a clam shell because of the way it closes. Can be of varying colors but generally light grey, dark grey, or cream colored. These are not buckram or cloth covered, but may have buckram on the spine. Go to the Assessment Project Reference Library for examples. NOTE: This term is not used on the assessment forms. It is included here for reference.
Dust Cover: The original paper jacket of a book, usually covered with mylar for protection in a library. Common in Juvenile books, but these are otherwise uncommon in the general circulating collections. The presence of an original dust jacket in good condition can be very significant with Special Collections (Rare) books. Some books in Special Collections will have fitted plastic covers.
Econobind/Lamijack: These are trademark names of inexpensive binding that our commercial vendors have offered at one time or another. They are commercially rebound paperbacks or light weight books. They have lighter weight boards covered in ligh weight buckram or buckram-like cloth. The spine will be flat, not rounded. They are usually perfect bound with no signatures. Often the paperback cover will be bound in. As an alternative, the paperback cover often will be laminated to the board(s) or digitized and reproduced on the cover. As a rule, they will not have an endsheet with flyleaf or a strong Super.
As a rule: A “trade” or "mass" paperback that has been rebound and the cover has a flat spine. Not a rebound journal or serial (these will be Rigid Board – buckram). Hint: If you are not sure it was originally a paperback, look on the copyright page. Publishers often describe the type of publication. Hint: Look at the publisher’s name. Penguin, Dell, Signet, Bantam, and Vintage publish paperbacks – not hardcover (as a rule).
Enclosure: Any type of wrap or container used to protect a book or other item. Typically some sort of box or case, but a dust jacket is also considered an enclosure. Enclosures include: Phase boxes, Double Tray boxes, slip cases, portfolio enclosures, dust covers, and media enclosures.
Endpaper or endsheet: See Parts of a Book. Endsheets are sheets of paper at the front and back inside cover of a book. Half of each sheet is pasted to the inside cover of a book, and the other half of which is trimmed to form the first leaf in the book. The pasted part is called the "Pastedown end paper", and the un-pasted part is known as the "free end paper" or the "fly page" or Fly leaf. Also: “generally refers to the front free end paper or any other blank page preceding the first page with printing.” (from Tappin Bookmine)
Flexible - Significant Damage (SF1 - Referred form): Items with flexible paper (not
brittle or nearly brittle) that are in need of multiple repair or advanced preservation
action. See "When to Refer" in the Detailed instructions for form SF1.
Foldouts, Centerfolds: Foldouts are special pages that fold out to present information on a larger page than most pages of the book. Foldouts do not include pop-ups. Foldouts do not include foldout cover flaps. If cover flaps contain information we want to preserve, see Special Cover. Centerfolds, in this instance, have a center fold and are designed to lay flat when the book is open. Centerfolds are attached to stubbing (a narrow strip of paper which is bound into the book). They are not directly bound into the gutter with glue, thread, or staples.
Foxing: Brown or rust colored spots that develop in books (usually found in older books) because of the composition of the paper. Technical description available through Stanford - Conservation On Line. [“Foxing is a pattern of spotting or speckling on paper or sometimes cloth, usually brown or yellowish brown in tone and often more or less circular in shape. It's cause is not fully understood, but generally it is believed a slow process caused by microorganisms, enabled by impurities in the paper and storage conditions that are damp and warm enough to facilitate the process.” From Tappin Bookmine.]
Glassine: Only select this if it is the primary paper used in the book. A class of smooth, lightweight, dense paper that is usually semi-transparent and coated on one or more faces with silicon or similar agent that inhibits adhesion to another surface. (from Speciality Graphic Imaging Association Glossary. You will have to scroll down.) Glassine is often found next to pictures to protect the pages, but in this case will not be the primary paper type. If glassine is used as an overlay for illustrations and it contains information, then check the appropriate "Multiple Paper types" and add a comment to D. Comments about the "glassine overlays with information."
Good (Attachments or Inclusions Condition): Attachments or inclusions (and the pockets etc. that contain them) are in good condition.
Good (Cover Condition): Cover is not significantly damaged and does not have any of the other types of damage listed in this question.
Good (Page Condition): Pages are not significantly damaged and do not have any of the other types of damage listed in this question.
Good (Protective Cover or Enclosure Condition): There is no significant damage to protective cover or enclosure.
Good (Text Block attachment Condition): Text block is secure in its cover (casing).
Grubby: Pages of a book or other paper-based item are soiled to the point where information is obscured or book is unappealing to handle. Dirty to the extent that we risk losing information. Grubby includes food or drink damage but not simple water damage. It does not include pen or pencil markings or other damage classified as Mild or Heavy damage to pages/paper.
Gutter: The inside margin of a text block (where it is sewn or glued together).
Hinge Mend with Glue: Repair to the book hinge using glue. Shaken hinges can often be repaired with glue applied between the endsheet and the cover board. See The Book Arts Web for illustration. Sometimes Damaged Hinges can be repaired with glue, especially if the damage is in the first page or two. This is usually a level 1 book repair.
Hinge Mend with Tape: Repair to the book hinge using linen tape or Japanese tissue. The hinge is repaired by gluing a strip of tape or tissue over the torn paper. This is an option for most Damaged Hinges. Sometimes it can be used for broken hinges - see supervisor for examples. This is usually a level 1 book repair.
Inclusions: See Attachments or Inclusions.
Intact [Leaf (page) Attachment]: No pages coming loose, sewing is strong or glue is holding.
Lamijack: See Econo-bind/Lamijack.
Leaf Attachment - Other – sewn: Any method of leaf attachment using thread and some sort of stitching as the only method – other than sewn signature (STF) or Pam bound - Stapled or sewn. This includes side-stitched and oversewn bindings. It also includes books that have been rebound using a combination of oversewn and sewn signatures. (the first and last signatures are oversewn to attach them to the hinge, but the rest of the signatures are sewn through the fold.) NOTE: this does not include Asian or Coptic stitiching. These are recorded under Leaf Attachment - Other-Specify since they are hand sewn and require different repair methods.
Library Environment (Cause(s) of Damage): Damage that has been caused by environmental conditions in the library. Examples: 1. Extensive damage from light. 2. Bug damage. 3. Poor shelving. A tall book, maybe with a call # flag, that is coming out of its cover or case and there is some evidence that it may have been shelved on fore-edge. A book that is warped and there is a suggestion that it was shelved too tightly near smaller books. Other damage caused by poor shelving. 4. Dusty books. However, books with dirty covers are usually counted as patron damage or normal wear and tear.
Little to No Damage. (What Needs to be Done): There is no damage, or only mild wear or minor page damage is evident. The paper is flexible or nearly brittle. Brittle items are always referred, even if there is no damage.
Loose-leaf Notebook: A binder that contains loose or unbound pages. Typically, these can be opened to add or remove pages (e.g. a three-ring binder). These could also be bound with posts or with a metal Acco clasp (make a comment about method of binding). If 3-hole punched pages are tied with string, select “unbound” for type of leaf attachment, add "tied" for past preservation action, and add a comment to describe.
Margins - Adequate to Rebind: Margin between text or illustrations and the bound-in edge is at least ½”. If an illustration extends into the gutter, the margins are still considered adequate if losing the ½” will not mean the loss of information or will not result in an awkward illustration. For example, in a children’s book where illustrations routinely cross the gutter, it might not be critical in many cases for the 1/2” to be lost, but in some cases, the illustrations make no sense or are awkward without that part. Be sure to check throughout the book.
Unbound pages: Measure the margin of the spine side edges.
Margins – Inadequate to rebind: Margin between text or illustrations and the bound-in edge is less than ½”. If an illustration extends into the gutter, the margins are still considered adequate if losing the ½” will not mean the loss of information or will not result in an awkward illustration. For example, in a children’s book where illustrations routinely cross the gutter, it might not be critical if the 1/2” were lost. However, in some cases, the illustrations make no sense or are awkward without that part. See Margins: Adequate to rebind. Be sure to check throughout the book.
NOTE: Rebinding often causes this condition, however, do not check “Past Preservation Action” just because margins are inadequate due to rebinding. See Pages mutilated if text has been lost or illustrations damaged by rebinding.
Unbound pages: Measure the margin of the spine side edges. If all of the pages are folded, then check “inadequate.” Folded maps or charts are often different sizes or may need a special enclosure, so these will be referred for secondary review.
Media Enclosure: A jewel box, cd case, or video case, etc.
Missing (Attachments or Inclusions Condition): Evidence that pocket material (map, audio/visual item etc.), centerfold or foldout is missing. Usually there will be an empty pocket, reference to an attachment below the call # inside book, stubbing, or evidence of a mutilated page. If there is a special endsheet and the flyleaf is missing, select this option.
Moderate damage – Action needed: Damaged to the extent that some preservation action is necessary. Refer to C.1. Moderate Damage section of SF1: Detailed Instructions for more detailed information.
Mold: Mold on cover, spine, or interior pages of an item. IMPORTANT: If you suspect mold (dormant or active) place book in a plastic bag and TAKE DIRECTLY TO SUPERVISOR. (e.g. notify Carl, Christine, Kay, or Pat as soon as possible.
Multiple Paper Type - acidic and Multiple Paper Type - non-acidic: More than one paper type in a book – when the combination or types of paper affect or might affect the soundness of the book. If 25% or more of the thickness of a book is of a second type of paper or if the second type of paper is weakening the book’s structure, select this option. Conduct a test to determine if any of the pages are acidic and mark the appropriate box. (see Acidic paper and Non-acidic paper). Refer for Secondary Review.
NOTES: Might be individual pages in book (sometimes illustrations are mounted on stiffer paper, for instance). However, remember that the total number must equal at least 25% or the different paper must be damaging or weakening the structure of the book.
Might be a section of the book that is in different paper. However, individual tipped in pages (book repair) do not count as “multiple paper type.” If there is a large number of tipped in pages (20 or more), check “book repair” under PAST PRESERVATION ACTIONS and make a note in Section D “many book repair tip-ins.”
Do not count onion skin or glassine overlays protecting illustrations as multiple paper types. If the book contains several overlays that contain information (titles for illustrations, etc.), then it is appropriate to select multiple paper type.
Tipped in or glued in illustrations DO NOT count as multiple paper types. These are recorded under ATTACHMENTS or INCLUSIONS as “Photos or illustrations (glued or taped).
N/A-Unbound (A.2. Cover, B.1. Cover Condition, or B.5. Text Block Condition): This question does not apply because the item being assessed consists entirely of unbound pages.
Nearly Brittle - Significant Damage (SF1 - Referred form): Items with nearly brittle paper that need multiple repairs of advanced preservation action. See "When to Refer" in the Detailed instructions for form SF1.
Needs Pocket (Attachments or Inclusions Condition): Attachment (such as disk, map, table) exists but is not secured with pocket or protective attachment. Or pocket is damaged or acidic and needs replacing. Do not confuse this with "loose" under Other – Specify (Attachments or Inclusions Condition).
Newspaper: Newsprint paper.
No Cover (A.2. Cover, B.1. Cover Condition): Items in which the first and last sheets are made with the same type of paper as the rest of the book.
· The type will be book or pamphlet as normally defined.
· Check “no cover” under A.2 and B.1.
· Recommend pam binding if the item consists of a single signature or a single sheet and it is less that 1/8th inch thick. If it is corner stapled, pam binding does not apply. We will recommend binding these as part of the data assessment at the end of the project.
Non-acidic paper: The pH test pen leaves a purple mark when dry. The composition of the paper is acid-free (pH is more than 6.8). If the paper is acidic, the pH test pen will leave a yellow mark when dry.
None: Uhhh . . . there isn’t one . . .
None evident (Past Preservation Actions): No evidence of rebinding, repairs (including special pockets) or boxing by preservation. Of course all materials have been marked, tattle taped and property stamped by Preservation, but these are not considered here. Those actions are normal processing actions. Attachment of a gift plate, date due slip or card pocket is also not considered here as a Preservation action.
Normal wear and tear [Causes(s) of Damage]: Damage seems due to normal use of book simply by being moved from shelf to shelf and checked out and carried with reasonable care. Generally the damage will be “minor” such as fraying, or regular marks of wear. Nevertheless, more extensive damage can be caused by normal wear and tear. Normal wear and tear only applies to items that do not clearly show damage caused by Patrons, Library environment, Poor Design, past preservation actions, or Processing damage. “Normal wear and tear” can be checked in addition to other causes of damage.
Not Applicable [Causes(s) of Damage]: No damage.
Onion Skin (Type of Paper): Only select this if it the primary paper used in the book. A lightweight translucent paper. Its consistency often resembles the outer skin of an onion. It is not the same as Glassine, which is coated. Sometimes used in art books as interleaving or overlays. Sometimes used for carbon copies of typewritten documents. It would count towards Multiple Paper Type only when the onion skin contains information (for instance, overlays sometime contain the title of an illustration.) See example in Assessment Reference Library.
Other – specify _____ (Additional Protective Covering): Item has a protective covering that is not included in the options available in this question. If none of the Accepted terms apply, place item on Questions shelf with note.
Accordion (applies to material stored in an accordion style file folder – with or without a flap. Not the same as “accordion” leaf attachment. See photo.)
Asian Case (see definition.)
Manila env (Use when item is enclosed in a manila envelope - not when item is enclosed in manila box.)
Plastic env (not the same as shrink wrapping. This does include zip-lock bags.)
Prefab slipcase (a slipcase that has not been custom made for the book. These are purchased flat, in pre-determined sizes, then folded as needed. One brand name is “Megafile.” See example in Assessment Project library)
See Comments (Use only when staff has decided not to establish an accepted term for the condition. Be sure to add an appropriate comment in D. Comments.)
Shrink (Applies to items that have been shrink-wrapped for protection. These will be items from Pascal. They need to be re-wrapped before we send them back offsite.)
Tyvek env (Use when item is enclosed in a Tyvek envelope)
Other – specify _____ (Attachments or Inclusions): Item has attachments or inclusions that are not included in the options available in this question. If none of the Accepted terms apply, place item on Questions shelf with note.
Fabric (use for any sort of fabric attachment or inclusion. If the fabric consists of ribbons intended to be used as bookmarks, please add a note to the Comments sections: “bookmark ribbons.”
See Comments (Use only when staff has decided not to establish an accepted term for the condition. Be sure to add an appropriate comment in D. Comments.)
Tabs (use to indicate that the book has divider tabs that extend beyond the fore edge of the text block
Other – Specify (Attachments or Inclusions Condition): Significant damage to attachments or inclusions and of a type not listed as an option in this question. If none of the Accepted terms apply, place item on Questions shelf with note.
Both Endsheets (Use if both front and back endsheets contain the same information and are damaged to the extent that we will need to obtain copies of the endsheets. This might be processing damage. If both endsheets contain the same information and only one is significantly damaged, then just check “damaged.” Note: term was “Endsheet” in REF,SCI, JUV)
Loose (use when you find something that is loose, but that would not normally go in a pocket. For instance, an errata sheet or a photo or an illustration that needs to be glued in. Action needed under C.2. would probably be a tip-in.)
See Comments (Use only when staff has decided not to establish an accepted term for the condition. Be sure to add an appropriate comment in D. Comments.)
Tabs (item has divider tabs that extend beyond the fore edge. Use when the tabs have been damaged and select “Poor original design.”)
Other –specify_____ [Causes(s) of Damage]: Causes of damage that do not fit the other categories available in this question. If none of the Accepted terms apply, place item on Questions shelf with note.
Publisher (applies when damage is the result of poor or sloppy work performed by the publisher. Use only for Juvenile collection.)
Shipping (Use only for Pascal items that have been poorly boxed or crated for shipment from offsite. The term applies whether or not an item has been damaged.)
Other – specify ______ (Cover): Cover is of another material type. This may be an indication that this is also a “Special Cover.” If none of the Accepted terms apply, place item on Questions shelf with note.
Light fabric (use for paper covers that are covered with fabric – not fabric only. These are sturdier than paperback covers, but not rigid board).
Other – specify ______ (Cover Condition): Significant damage to the cover and of a type not listed as an option in this question. If none of the Accepted terms apply, place item on Questions shelf with note.
Label (use when a branch or department library has applied tape, stickers, dots of paint, glued on letters, etc. to the spine of a book to indicate where it should be shelved. See photo in Photo Gallery. These will be marked as “Processing – other” for cause of damage. Call numbers are not part of this definition.)
Mutilation (intentional patron damage.)
Pastedown (use when the pastedown is partially detached from the front or back cover boards. See Appendix B – Parts of a Book for location of “pastedown.” Cause could be past preservation action (when the book has been rebound) or poor original workmanship.)
Torn-paper (use only for paperback covers that are torn. Not the same as “loose boards” or Spine loose, detached, or damaged.)
Warped (use only for warped cover boards. If the corners are warped to the extent that they are causing damage, enter this term. This is not the same as a “sprung” text block).
Other – specify_____ [Leaf (page) Attachment]: Method of leaf attachment does not fit the other categories available in this question. If none of the Accepted terms apply, place item on Questions shelf with note.
Acco (applies to paper that is held together by an “acco” style fastener and is not attached to a binder or notebook. An acco style fastener consists of two metal strips. One strip has tabs that pass through holes in the paper and the 2nd strip. The tabs are folded down and secured by sliding bars (the bars might be missing). See photo in Acco ad and in manual)
Accordion (applies to board or paper sheets that open accordion style. Not to be confused with “accordion” style enclosure.)
Adhesive (use only for Juvenile collection when no other definition that involves adhesive/glue applies.)
Asian (includes ailur. See definition.)
Clamped (use for loose-leaf notebooks that “bind” the pages with a clamp built into the spine. Cause of damage/condition is Poor Original Design. These would also be C.2. since they should be rebound. See photo in Appendix C – Photo Gallery)
Corner Stapled (a type of binding in which loose pages are attached by a single staple in one corner of the item. This is considered a book (A.1 Type). If there is more than one staple it will be considered side stapled. Often these will have no cover.
Stapled (pamphlets stapled through the fold, but not pam bound.) or books with more than 1 signature when the signatures are stapled through the fold, not sewn. Not the same as side-stapled. Do not use for pam-bound pamphlets whether they have been bound in-house or commercially bound. You are most likely to see this in foreign publications.)
Velobind (A type of binding applied to loose-leaf booklets. The spine edge is sandwiched between two narrow strips of hard plastic connected to each other with several plastic posts (the posts go through the paper). See photo. We also have an example at the main pc.
Obsolete term: PB – glued (Class as Pam bound – taped/glued)
Obsolete term: PB-Side stapled (Refer to staff)
Obsolete term: Stapled – signature (Class as Other – Specify: Stapled.)
Other – specify _______ (Page Condition): Significant damage to the pages and of a type not listed as an option in this question. Place on Questions shelf with note if none of the following terms apply.
Crimped (pages or text block are bent or creased because of some sort of clamping or compression. Also applied to crimping along the inside margin or “gutter”. This is most likely to be found in an older, sewn-through-the-fold book. It looks like small grooves running parallel to the spine near the stitching)
Folded (pages are folded into the book or scrunched up. Not the same as dog-eared which is either mild or heavy damage caused by patrons)
Poorly trimmed (applies when corners of pages were folded when the edges of the text block were trimmed. When the corners are unfolded, there is excess paper on the corner. Can also occur when uncut pages were ripped open rather than carefully cut. This is a level 1 repair when there is enough excess paper that it could result in torn pages, loss of text. Don’t count this if the excess amount is not enough to damage the book. Poorly trimmed can also apply to rebound items when trimming has cut off text – check Past Preservation Action for cause in this instance).
Obsolete - Grubby (pages are dirty because of handling, food, etc. Applies to JUV collection only. Other collections have a box to check.)
Other – specify _______ (Past Preservation Actions): There is evidence of past preservation action(s) not included in the options available in this question. If none of the Accepted terms apply, place item on Questions shelf with note.
Bookboard casing (a “slip case” made in house using uncovered
Patron - see Past Preservation Action – Patron.
Tied (applies when the string or ribbon is attached to a book’s cover
and is use to hold it closed. Also applies when plain string,
cotton tape or rubberbands are used please add a comment
if you find rubberbands or if the string is damage the item.)
Other – specify ______(Protective Cover Or Enclosure Condition): There is damage to the protective cover or enclosure that is not included in the options available in this question. If none of the Accepted terms apply, place item on Questions shelf with note.
Other – specify ______ (Text Block Attachment): Significant damage to the text block and of a type not listed as an option in this question. If none of the Accepted terms apply, place item on Questions shelf with note.
Buckled (applies when the text block is “warped” but the book cover is not. Most likely to occur with large, heavy books. Likely causes for this damage: poorly shelved and also Poor Original Design – usually with Size checked as well. It is possible for either one to be the sole cause of the damage. If the book has been rebound or if it is a serial/journal that has been rebound, Previous Preservation Action may be more appropriate than Poor Original Design, but only when thickness is the primary cause since we cannot significantly alter the height or width of a book.
Detached (applies when the text block is completely detached from the cover and endsheets but is in good condition otherwise. Most likely to occur when a new book is poorly assembled. Cause of damage is “Publisher”)
Excess Threads (text block is tight, but has extra loops of thread or thread ends
Flyleaf torn (applies when the flyleaf is torn or has been torn out or cut out.)
Multi-size (use when 1 or more issue bound into a single volume of a serial is significantly smaller or larger than the other issues. “Significant” means more than ½ inch on any edge. Cause of damage is Previous Preservation Action. If you see this condition in a monograph, ask staff about appropriate action. See photo in Appendix C – Photo Gallery)
N/A-unbound – (applies to unbound paper only.)
Sprung (text block is tight, but the spine is no longer at 90° angle)
Other – Specify_____ (Type): Place on Questions shelf with a note. Not primarily a book, pamphlet or unbound paper, but consists of some sort of paper item such as a stand-alone map. Audio Visual materials (CD, DVD, video, cassette) will be assessed with a different form.
Other – specify _____ (Type of Paper): Item contains a type of paper that is not included in the options available in this question. (Tip ins are recorded under “Past Preservation Actions/Book Repair-Other”) If none of the Accepted terms apply, place item on Questions shelf with note.
Uncoated Board – acidic
Uncoated Board (use for non-acidic uncoated board)
Oversewn: A method of rebinding a book (not a binding method used in the original binding). A book is divided into small sections of individual pages or leaves which are then sewn as sections and then sewn together with an interlocking stitch. The stitches often appear to be uneven – unlike Side-stitched. Sometimes used in combination with sewn signatures when rebinding a book. See Acme Bookbinding “Methods of Leaf Attachment” for a description of the process (you will need to scroll down). Look for this particularly in “older” rebinding. See also: NYU Preservation for a photo of the spine of an Oversewn text block. Page replacement can be difficult because threads, lack of access to the spine, and so on. If the item needs pages tipped in or replaced, consider referring the item for secondary review.
Page Repair: Typically this involves erasing pencil markings, mending small tears, or other minor repairs. If the damage is extensive the page(s) might have to be replaced. See Page Replacement.
Page Replacement: Mutilated or missing pages can usually be replaced with a photocopy. The photocopies are tipped in. Since page replacement involves several steps, it is at least a level 2 repair. NOTE: If there are more than 10 pages with color or illustrations OR more than 20 text only pages to be replaced, the item should be C.3. Significant Damage – Referred. It may be necessary to rebind the book in addition to replacing the pages. In some instances, we will need to replace the book .
Pages – Heavy Damage: Extensive highlighting, pen or pencil underlining, or other marks – but all information is available. Lots of dog-eared pages. Text or images are readable, but maybe with difficulty. Not all information could be reproduced with photocopy and still be legible. This is especially a problem with highlighting which often copies as solid grey or even black.
Pages loose or detached [Leaf (page) Attachment]: Any pages loose (sewing loose, glue giving way) or detached because of some sort of weakness or failure in the method of leaf attachment. Pages that have been torn or cut out are counted as Pages mutilated or cut out, not as loose or detached.
Exception: Only record a missing flyleaf as “Pages Missing” if this includes loss of information (such as loss of barcode or hand-written call number) and the flyleaf is not part of a special endsheet. If part of a special endsheet is missing, record that under ATTACHMENTS AND INCLUSIONS CONDITIONS.
NOTE: if there are loose or detached pages and pages are missing, select “Pages missing.”
REQUEST: Please place a piece of notepaper in the text block to mark the location of any loose pages. We may want to send these to book repair.
Pages – mild damage (Page Condition): Some marking, but not extensive. E.g. a little pencil underlining, only a little use of highlighter, other marks – but all content is there and is easily read or viewed. Mild damage can also consist of a few dog-eared pages. Mild damage can also include torn pages when the tear is only an inch or 2 and the pages are not loose. Dirt can also be included here if it is not extensive – e.g. the occasional fingerprint. A few post-its also qualify as mild damage.
Pages missing [Leaf (page) Attachment]: Any pages missing ailure of weakness or ailure of the method of leaf attachment. This would not be marked if pages have been cut or torn out by patron (mutilation), but if pages have come out at gutter through natural wear and tear or poor binding. Only record a missing flyleaf “Pages Missing” if this includes loss of information such as loss of barcode or hand-written call number and the flyleaf is not part of a special endsheet. If part of a special endsheet is missing, record that under ATTACHMENTS AND INCLUSIONS CONDITIONS.
Pages mutilated or cut out (Page Condition): Pages have been cut or torn out or marked to the extent that information is obscured or missing. This includes graffiti in the text even when it does not obscure information. Mutilated pages can also be the result of rebinding. Sometimes oversewing obscures text or necessary parts of illustrations (especially illustrations that were originally centerfolds or printed across the gutter.
Pages stuck together (Page Condition): Any pages stuck or sticking together (probably due to foreign substance or water) but not due to “uncut pages” from publisher.
“Do you think pages fall in love? Is that why we sometimes find them stuck together for no apparent reason. Were they, in another life trees that were side by side, their roots entangled until they became pages next to each other in Pamietnik Slowianski?” S. DeLay
Pam bind (Moderate-What Needs to be Done): Single signature pamphlet that needs a new cover or a replacement for an existing cover that is no longer in good enough condition to protect the pamphlet. Also applies if a pamphlet has not been Pam bound.
Pam bind (C.4. Secondary Review Results – Type of action): Single signature pamphlet that needs a new cover or a replacement for an existing cover that is no longer in good enough condition to protect the pamphlet. If the item is nearly brittle, brittle, or significantly damaged, pam binding might still be an option if handled by a technician or conservator. Also applies if a pamphlet has not been Pam bound.
Pam bound (generic definition): A single signature pamphlet stapled, taped, glued, or sewn into a rigid or semi-rigid board cover. Usually locally bound, but could be commercially bound as well. See Pam bound – Stapled or sewn, Pam bound – glued, or Pam bound – taped below.
A single-signature pamphlet in its original paper cover only is considered a Paperback (cover). The method of leaf attachment is usually Other – specify: stapled.
Pam bound – glued: A single signature pamphlet glued directly onto fabric tape inside a rigid or semi-rigid board cover. These may or may not be stapled as well. Locally bound. Record as Pam bound – taped/glued.
Pam bound – in house (Past Preservation Actions): An item that has been pam bound in Book Repair, not pam bound by the original publisher or a commercial bindery. When determining the type of leaf attachment for Pam bound items, be particularly careful. The primary consideration is whether or not the pamphlet is in direct contact with glue or other adhesive.
Pam bound - Side-Stapled: Separate sheets of paper that have been side stapled into a paper “spine” and then glued into a pamphlet binder. Sometime stapled leafs were glued directly into a pam binder. If the pages are not glued directly into the pam binder, record as A.1. Type: Pamphlet and A.5 Leaf Attachment: Side Stapled. If they are glued in, record it as A.1. Type: Pamphlet and A.5 Leaf Attachment: Pam bound – taped/glued. (NOTE: This type of leaf attachment was recorded under “Other” as “PB-Side stapled” prior to 12/18/06).
Pam bound - Stapled or sewn: A single signature pamphlet stapled or sewn into a rigid or semi-rigid board cover. Usually locally bound, but could be commercially bound as well. Commercially bound Pamphlets can be bound in Rigid board – cloth, Rigid board – buckram, or Rigid board – paper covers. NOTE: This term applies only when staples or thread are the primary or only method of attaching the pamphlet to the binder and glue or tape are not directly applied to the pamphlet. If the pamphlet is not in a rigid or semi-rigid board cover, then leaf attachment will be identified as appropriate (it might be sewn through the fold or it might be stapled under “Other-specify.” There are examples in the Assessment Project Reference Library.
A single signature pamphlet taped directly into a rigid or semi-rigid board cover and then stapled to the
tape. Record as “Pam bound – Taped/glued.”
Pamphlet: a booklet, leaflet, or music score that consists of a single signature. Often, but not always bound into a cover with staples, thread or tape, but it could be in its original paper cover alone. If the pamphlet is not in a rigid or semi-rigid board cover, then leaf attachment will be identified as appropriate (it might be sewn through the fold or it might be stapled under “Other-specify.” There are examples in the Assessment Project Reference Library.
Paper item(s) (Attachments Or Inclusions): Book or box contains paper items that were not intended to be attached to the book. Most often maps, charts, or illustrations. Ideally, these will be in a pocket attached to the book (or enclosure if there is one).
Paper Nearly Brittle: Corner does not “break off easily” but pulls off easily with a light tug when the brittle test (double-fold) is applied.
Paper too brittle for commercial binding: Corner easily breaks off when the brittle test (double-fold) is applied. In addition, even if brittle test does not determine brittleness, if pages in the text block are breaking off in the gutter, item will be considered “too brittle for binding.” A brittle fly-leaf does not constitute a brittle book. However if this is damaging other pages, a note should be made.
Paperback (cover): The original paperback cover is all that covers text block. A single-signature pamphlet in its original cover only (not pam bound) is also considered a Paperback Cover. If the spine was re-enforced by the publisher with a strip of light weight fabric, add a note in comments: “spine reinforced w/fabric.” See photo.
Past Preservation Action – Patron: A patron has attempted to mend pages, spine, or hinge with scotch tape, duct tape, etc. Please record the original damage and indicate what type of action is required to address the original damage. In addition, all items with this type of damage will be C.3. Significant Damage and will be referred to staff.
NOTE: Some spine mends done with clear plastic tape have actually been done by library personnel. If it is especially tidy or has been done with a single, wide strip of clear tape, in might have been done in house rather than by a patron. If you think that is the case, check “book repair” and add a comment such as “clear plastic tape.” Don’t forget to record the damaged spine and recommend repair. If it looks like the tape is causing additional damage, refer the item to staff (C.3.)
NOTE: Technically, this term is one of the “accepted terms” for Past Preservation Action – other-specify. Since it occurs with some frequency, we added a box to the form.
Patron Damage: We will mark Patron damage for more than a couple of pen marks, highlighting, or dark pencil marks in text (Page damage–Mild); or marking that interferes with the readability or copying of the text (Page damage—heavy); or mutilation. Many post-its or dog-earing (more than ten of either of these) will be marked as “Patron Damage.” We will not mark “Patron Damage” for Mild Damage. Tape repairs performed by patrons are counted as “Patron Damage.”
Perfect (Leaf Attachment): A method of binding with no signatures. Single sheets are simply held together and to the cover by glue along the spine. The book will not easily lay flat when opened. If it lays flat when opened and there are no signatures, most likely leaf attachment is double fan adhesive.
Phase Box: An enclosure intended for temporary use to protect a fragile or damaged book. Phase boxes can be constructed using rigid, semi-rigid, or corrugated board. If made in Book Repair unit, they are usually constructed using heavy manila paper. They are not covered in buckram or cloth but might have a buckram spine. There are examples in the Assessment Project Reference Library. NOTE: This term is not used on the assessment forms. It is included here for reference.
Photographs or illustrations (glued or taped): Photographs or illustrations that have been glued or taped into a book or thesis or onto unbound sheets of paper.
Poor Original Design or Workmanship (Cause(s) of Damage): Book or item was poorly conceived in design, for example book too large for original cover, thick or heavy perfect bound book, different size pages bound together, excessive number of foldouts or stubbing, heavy clay coated text block that has not been bound flush, most oversize items, and so on. Also applies to divider tabs that extend beyond the fore-edge. Poor workmanship can apply to excess glue, poorly or inadequately applied glue, crooked text block, and so on. NOTE: If you select this because the book is heavy or large, also check Size.
Poorly Shelved: Item is jammed in (too tight) or lacks support (no book ends, books “askew”); Book is shelved on its spine or fore-edge. If you have difficulty getting the book off the shelf, there is a shelving problem. The most likely types of damage from poor shelving are warped cover boards, “buckled” text blocks, and torn spines. Other types of damage might be loose pages or signatures, loose text blocks, shaken hinges, scrunched pages, or other damage consistent with shelving problems. Since these latter problems could be caused by normal wear and tear, etc., count them as “Damaged by poor shelving” only if you find them with a shelving problem.
Pop-up: Attachments or inclusions that become 3-dimensional when the pages are opened. For our purposes, Pop-up includes flaps that can be lifted to reveal an illustration or additional text. Most of these will be found in children’s books, but might appear in Art books or Special Collections.
Portfolio w/flaps: A type of enclosure typically (but not always) used to protect an unbound item. A portfolio w/flaps consists of 2 rigid (or semi-rigid) paper boards and a spine that protects an interior enclosure with four flaps. Typically used for unbound pages, but might be used for music items with multiple scores, or for items that are spiral bound. These are sometimes secured with ribbon ties. Go to the Assessment Project Reference Library for an example.
Portfolio – flapless: A flapless portfolio consists of 2 rigid (or semi-rigid) paper boards and a spine. Typically used for unbound pages. These are sometimes secured with ribbon ties. Go to the Assessment Project Reference Library for an example. It is possible this style of enclosure will have a flap on the fore-edge, but this is not the same as a Portfolio w/flaps since that style of enclosure also includes an interior enclosure.
Post-its: See “Patron Damage”
Previous Preservation Actions (ours or others) [Cause(s) of Damage]: Damage was caused by rebinding, enclosure, in-house repair, or other preservation action performed or initiated by the Libraries. Taped repairs performed by patrons count as Patron Damage. If you check this box, but the reason is not obvious from the rest of the form, write a note in D. Comments explaining why (e.g. “text lost in rebinding.”)
Princeton or Cut-Corner Box: A box with one corner open so that books, magazines, or phamplets can be inserted for storage on a shelf.
Print Burns: Page opposite or near an illustration, print, or text shows “burning marks,” often surrounded by an oily mark. It may look like an “echo” of the illustration or text. Use this term when the area "behind" the text is darker than the margins. This is often caused by acidic ink, but is similar to the "burn" from an acidic illustration.
Processing damage: •TT •BC •Other [Cause(s) of Damage]: Damage is the result of tattle tape (TT), barcode (BC), or other processing action (ink stamp etc.). Ideally, tattle tape is inserted so that it does not obscure information or illustrations. It should be inserted as close to the gutter as possible – to minimize the possibility of pages being torn or damaged. Barcodes should not obscure information that is a significant part of a special endsheet. If glue on card pocket or gift plate is causing damage, this should be considered “Processing Damage—Other.” Do not include “the Red X” as processing damage. Shelving labels are considered Process damage – other.
Publishers Binding: Primarily late nineteenth-and twentieth-century hard-cover American books bound in decorated publisher's cloth—sometimes with an insignia for the illustrator.
Rebind (Moderate-What Needs to be Done): Book with adequate margins, but the cover is in poor condition (boards loose, text block detached) and the text block is damaged to the extent that recasing is not the best option. The cover is not a Special Cover or does not contain special information. Brittle books can not be rebound.
Rebind (Secondary Review - What Needs to be done): See Rebind – Moderate for general definition. A flexible or nearly brittle book referred for secondary review might be rebindable. These should be left as C.3 (refer for secondary review) in order to build statistics on the relative degrees of damage.
Rebound – Heckman (Past Preservation Actions): Commercially rebound item with Heckman sticker inside back cover. This includes recases, rebinds, Econo/Lamijack, or commercial binding of pams.
Rebound – Houchen (Past Preservation Actions): Commercially rebound item with Houchen sticker inside back cover. This includes recases, rebinds, Econo/Lamijack, or commercial binding of pams.
Rebound - Other (Past Preservation Actions): Commercially rebound, or older in-house bound item that has no Heckman or Houchen sticker. This includes recases, rebinds, econo, or commercial binding of pams.
Recase – new cover (Moderate-What Needs to be Done): Remove old case from text block, mend text block (if needed) and make and attach new case. Procedure is appropriate when the text block is intact (signatures are tight) but cover is in poor condition (boards loose or detached, worn, dirty or damaged) and cover does not have special information. “Recase” option refers to both the conditions for hand recasing and commercial recasing below:
If a book has sewn signatures, the following conditions are OK for recase. In general, text block is in good condition, but also: if hinge is broken, or fly-leaf is separating from text block and/or first or last couple of pages are loose. If there are breaks in the text block but leaf attachment and sewing is generally tight and intact and no threads are broken.
For other kinds of binding (perfect, etc) recase is only an option if: there are no complete breaks in the text block and leaf attachment is intact.
A book with Hinge breaks or minor or partial breaks in backing and text block are OK for recasing, but will take additional repair before recasing.
Recase – use original cover (Moderate-What Needs to be Done): Same as “Recase—New cover” but select this choice if the cover is in good condition and/or contains special information.
Reformatting: Microfilming, digitization, photography (either in-house or by vendor). Any reproduction that must be done by an outside vendor.
Replace (mass paperback) (Secondary Review - What Needs to be done): Mass market paperback published in last 10 years.
Resewing: A book with a large split, with fairly flexible pages, could be resewn and recased. This is not an operation that needs a conservator. Selection for these would be “Level 3 Book Repair” not “Conservator” even though it is not among currently practiced “Level 3” listings. This is consistent with “fully staffed etc.” program.
Rigid Board - buckram Cover: The book’s cover is made of rigid board and covered with buckram: a heavy-weave cotton cloth filled, impregnated, or coated with different compounds (mainly, starch and pyroxylin but also other materials) to enhance body, finish, and durability. (Definition is from the Book Arts Web) Looks a bit like vinyl. Almost always a rebound item. Some locally rebound items will have buckram over the spine and joints, but the boards will not be covered at all.
Rigid Board – cloth Cover: Cloth cover, usually dull rather than shiny like buckram, over rigid boards. Cloth covers the spine and joints.
Rigid board – Leather Cover: Leather covers the spine and joints. Might cover the boards as well. Beware of fake-leather paper covers including “bonded leather” which is paper with a thin veneer of leather. Check “Rigid Board - Paper Cover” for these. See also Thin Leather.
Rigid Board – Paper Cover: Rigid board with paper cover rather than fabric or leather. Includes “bonded leather” and other paper based. Paper covers the spine and joints.
Sewn Signatures: Text block is constructed by sewing together 2 or more signatures. The stitches are made through the fold of each signature and connected to the adjacent signature. Thread will be visible inside the fold of each signature. See Acme Bookbinding “Methods of Leaf Attachment” for a description of the process.
Shaken Hinges: Cover is still attached to the book, but the end sheet (pastedown) is coming loose from the cover board at the hinge (sometimes it is coming lose from the text block at the hinges as well). TEST: hold the book by the front and back boards with the fore-edge down as in the photo. If the text block is not loose enough to “hang” but the end sheet is unglued more than about 3/8 inch, consider counting it as shaken – especially on larger and heavier books (it’s just a matter of time. . . .). Sometimes the text block will be loose enough that the front bottom edge will touch the shelf (does not apply for books that are bound “flush”). Shaken hinges usually can be repaired, provided the rest of the book is in reasonably good condition. See Hinge mend (hinge tightening).
Side Stapled: Separate pages (or signatures) are stapled together by staples that run parallel to the spine. Most likely to be found in older pamphlets or booklets that were rebound here several years ago. Causes problems similar to side-sewn or Oversewn method of leaf attachment.
If the book was rebound in-house and has an acidic binder, be sure to classify the cover as “Rigid Board-Paper” and to check “acidic” under cover condition. Although there is a strip of buckram on the spine and joints, it is light weight – hence the “paper” classification. This is not the same as Pam-bound – side-stapled.
Side Stitched: Separate pages (or signatures) are sewn together by stitches that run parallel to the spine. The stitches will be evenly spaced – unlike Oversewn stitching which often appears to be uneven. See Acme Bookbinding “Methods of Leaf Attachment” for a description of the process (scroll down to “side sewing”).
Signature: A group of pages of the book that are sewn as a unit into the bound book. Typically, but not always, folded from a single sheet. “Single Signature” refers to a pamphlet or leaflet that consists of just one signature. Sometimes these are pam bound but they can be commercially bound. Definition is from Tappin Bookmine.
Significant Damage: Damaged to the extent that we are in imminent danger of losing material or have already lost material that cannot be easily replaced. See C.3. Refer for Secondary Review question in SF1: Detailed Instructions for more details.
Size: The size, shape, and weight of a book are often factors in the longevity of the book. If the book has a “size problem” check the box next to Past Preservation Action and Poor Original Design. If the book has been rebound, Past Preservation Action may be applicable. If it has not been rebound, Poor Original Design applies.
Consider the following:
● Too tall to shelve upright?
● Too wide to fit onto the shelf? (it sticks out or pushes into the opposite shelf)
● Too small to survive? (it might get lost or pushed into the space between the shelves)
● Text block is too heavy for its casing? If it is buckled, the text block is probably too heavy. On the other hand, buckling might result from poor shelving (or from both conditions).
Slip Case: A five-sided enclosure. The book is inserted with the spine exposed. Go to the Assessment Project Reference Library at the main computer for examples.
Special Collection or Archives (C.4. Secondary Review Results - type of action): From time to time we discover an item shelved in the stacks that more properly belongs in Special Collections or in Archives. We can refer these items to those collections for their review. We would usually conduct a brittle/unbindable books analysis before referring it. That analysis would give us a better idea of the value of an item.
Special Cover: A cover that has artistic merit, an illustration, or decorations that contributes to the meaning of the book. Examples might include embossing, Publishers Binding (primarily late nineteenth-and twentieth-century hard-cover American books bound in decorated publisher's cloth—sometimes with an insignia for the illustrator). If there is simply an image on the cover related to the text and this image is also in book it is not a “Special Cover.” Test: If the cover were lost there would be loss of meaningful content. This also applies to cover flaps that fold out. However, a cover flap that contains information on the inside could be classed as a Special Endsheet (below).
Special Enclosure (A.3. Additional Protective Covering): Similar to Special Cover. Special Enclosures must be the original enclosure (made by the publisher or artist), can be of any type or style of construction, and must have some special aesthetic or intellectual value. These are enclosures that we would want to preserve and keep. Be sure to check for acidity.
Special Endsheets: Endsheets that contain information that enhances the usefulness of the book and that is not contained in the text block. For example, some science or math books print charts or graphs on endsheets rather than in the text. Record damage as "both endsheets" if both front and back endsheets contain the same information and are damaged to the extent that we will need to obtain copies of the endsheets. Test: If the endsheets were lost there would be loss of meaningful content.
STF: Sewn Through the Fold. See Sewn Signatures.
Stubbing: “Stubbing is used to build up a spine when parts or pockets of differing size are bound with the text. This is done by adding an appropriate thickness of perforated pages which are later separated from the binding leaving a ¼ inch stubbing. Without the stubbing, the spine and shoulders of a book would eventually collapse.” Definition is from NYU Preservation website. Photograph of one type of stubbing: Stubbing can come in different widths and thicknesses. Stubbing is also found in the text block with pages attached with glue.
Super: A strip of fabric that is
glued to the spine of a text block and then to the cover boards. Also
referred to as “crash” or “mull.” Go to
Thermal bind (Moderate-What Needs to be Done): Applies to a serial or other item that was previously Thermal Bound but the cover is damaged or has come loose. We can also thermal bind loose leaf or unbound items if they are not brittle.
This option can apply to a paperback simply coming out of its cover but cover and text block is otherwise in good condition. Depending on the type of glue, we can reheat the glue and re-attach the cover.
Thermal Bound Cover: Consists of a clear plastic front with a grey paper spine and back. Since all thermal binding is done in-house, there is no need to record it is “Past Preservation Action.” As a rule, damage to thermal bindings will be considered “Normal Wear and Tear.”
Thin Leather: A good quality leather cover that is very thin. Usually found on small, older books. Not to be confused with “bonded leather” which is extremely thin leather bonded to paper and then used to cover the book boards. If in doubt, ask.
Tissue Mend: Used for hinge mends, to attach first or last pages, and sometimes for breaks in text block.
Tip-in: Loose or replacement pages are attached to a book with a thin bead of glue.
Too Thick, Too Heavy, Too Much: (also see Size). A comment that applies to text block condition when the text block is too heavy or too thick for its casing. For instance – many of the Reference books are too heavy for their casing. This condition will increase the likelihood of damaged hinges, shaken hinges, buckled text block and so on. Even if there is no damage, this is something we need to know – if it’s too heavy, it’s just a matter of time (and gravity).
As a rule - if you don’t want to carry it in your backpack, if you find it easier to handle with 2 hands, it is probably too heavy for its casing. If you are so strong that heavy books never pose a problem – ask someone. Thickness or overall dimensions aren’t the only factors – some paper is heavier than other paper. However, if a book is 4 or more inches wide – it’s too heavy for its casing.
If a book is too heavy, please check either “poor original design” or “previous preservation action.” If we rebound it and it’s too heavy (especially if it is a serial/journal that we could have bound in 2 parts) then check “previous preservation action.” If it is too thick, consider adding comment: “s/b split in two parts.” When the text block is heavy, it is better to bind it with the bottom edge “flush” with the bottom edge of the casing (most books are bound with about ¼ inch extra casing on all sides). You can also suggest that a heavy book “s/b bound flush.”
Unbound-folded (B.6. Page Condition: This term applies only to Unbound items when any of the individual pages, maps, charts, or plates have been folded. As a rule, paper items will survive longer if they are stored flat and unfolded. Please refer all of these for secondary review. This does not include items that are unbound and were intended to be used folded such as brochures. Do not mark brochures or other items folded items that were meant to be folded as unbound folded and do not refer them.
Unbound-intact [B.4. Leaf (page) Attachment]: This term applies only to Unbound items. Check this response if you are reasonably certain that none of the unbound pages, maps, charts, or plates are missing.
Unbound-missing [B.4. Leaf (page) Attachment]: This term applies only to Unbound items. Check this response if any of the unbound pages, maps, charts, or plates are missing. Cause of damage will be “Poor original design or workmanship.” We have no way of knowing whether the missing pages were stolen or simply lost, but the decision to publish a set of unbound items greatly increased the likelihood that pages would be lost or stolen.
Unbound pages (Leaf Attachment): Pages or signatures are loose with no permanent binding. These may be completely loose leaf, in a loose-leaf binder, boxed, or they might be secured with string, rubber bands or grip-tites.
Unbound Paper: Unbound pages, usually contained in some sort of cover or enclosure. Unbound items are most likely to consist of illustrations, maps or charts. However, in manuscript collections or some Government Publications they may simply be standard size sheets of paper. Prior to 2/22/07, we used the term "portfolio."
Unknown (Cause(s) of Damage): No clear indication of cause of damage.
Video Cassette: A video cassette.
W/D – not conservable. (Secondary Review - What Needs to be done): Item is not salvageable.
Water damaged (Cover Condition): Water damaged, spotting, or warped cover. Pages may also be water damaged.
Water damaged (Page Condition): Presence of Cockling: the wavy, wrinkled page or pages caused by water or high humidity. May have water mark at edges of damage and which are often visible by looking at top edge of the book or pages. Water spotting on pages.
Worn (Cover Condition): Cover and/or spine shows significant wear. Board or spine is exposed through wear on the threads of buckram or cloth. Paperback or pam cover is bent, or losing cover information.
Year : Refers to the year any item (monograph, serial, journal or periodical) was published. The year should be entered on the data entry form. If a volume shows more than one year (v.20 1999/2000) enter the earliest year. If the call number includes the year, use that. If it does not, look on the title page for the publication information. If you have trouble finding the date, ask for assistance. Some older books may not include a publication date. In that instance, leave the zero in the in the year box.