UCB Libraries


Resources for HIST 3020: Historical Thinking and Writing


  • Starting Your
  • Finding Sources
    in the Libraries
  • Finding Sources
    in Databases
  • Interlibrary
  • Further




Reference Resources


Reference resources can be a great place to start when you are developing a new topic. They can provide you with an overview and background information, summarize established knowledge and important facts, discuss key figures, and offer a list of recommended sources or readings.


+ Reference Resources


This selection of electronic reference resources is intended to give you an idea how useful they can be. Many more, ranging from the general to the specific, are available to you in print and electronic form and may be found by looking under the heading History - General, Reference Sources in Find Articles & Databases.

New Pauly Online

Reallexikon or encyclopaedia of the ancient world. Covers Greco-Roman antiquity for more than two thousand years of history, ranging from the second millennium BC to early medieval Europe. CU


ABC-Clio eBook Collection

Full text of hundreds of reference titles on a great variety of historical subjects from a well-known publisher of history reference works. CU


Tips for Developing a Search Strategy


Before starting your search, break down your topic into discrete concepts that represent its major aspects. These concepts will be used to develop search terms, that is, significant words or phrases (nouns or noun phrases work best) that can be used when searching in online catalogs or research databases. Your search terms will determine the quantity and relevance of results you retrieve.


+ Tips for Choosing Search Terms
  1. For more flexible searching, think of various ways to express these search terms:

    • synonyms (related terms)
    • broader terms
    • narrower terms

    Topic: How did economic issues contribute to the fall of the Roman Empire?

  2. You need to tailor the search terms to the type of material you are searching. When searching for:

    • Books and other larger units, broader terms tend to work better because the topics covered by books tend to be more general.
    • Journal articles and other smaller units, narrower terms tend to work better because the topics covered by articles tend to be more specific.
    • Full text of books or articles, narrower terms or even unique terms like names or places tend to work better because you are searching on the full text.
  3. Adding terms that represent geographical or chronological facets may be useful.

  4. If you get too many results, try using narrower search terms or add another facet to your search. If you get too few results, try using broader terms, synonyms or subtract a facet from your search.

  5. Avoid using redundant or overlapping search terms, e.g. using "19th century" AND "Victorian period", or using "Middle Ages" in the International Medieval Bibliography. This is a common reason for getting too few results.


+ How to Combine Search Terms




  • AND: Rome AND fall AND economy (must find all terms)
  • OR: fall OR decline (must find one of the terms)
  • NOT: "Roman Empire" NOT Rome (must find first term NOT second term)



  • Phrases: “Roman Empire” (must find that phrase in that order)
  • Synonyms: Rome AND (fall OR decline)
  • Truncation and wildcards:
    econom* will find economy, economic, economics
    wom?n will find woman and women

How do I?




Finding Secondary Sources in the CU Libraries Collections


You can locate secondary sources for your research in the CU Libraries by searching the Chinook library catalog. Chinook is where you want to search for books, journals, microforms and other materials but not articles.


The Advanced Keyword search in Chinook Classic is the most flexible way to search for titles on your topic. Notice that you can specify available items, electronic version, language, location, and material type, among other limits.


+ Chinook Classic Searching Tips

The following tips will help you make the most of your Chinook Classic searching:

  1. From the full record of a relevant title, you can find similar titles by:

    • Looking at the Subjects listed and clicking on the links to find other titles in the catalog with the same subject heading.
    • Clicking on the "Nearby Call Numbers" button. This will allow you to virtually browse the collection by showing you what other titles would be shelved next to that one.
  2. Titles may have different locations in the CU library system, for example, Norlin Stacks, PASCAL offsite, or Norlin Library Periodicals Collection. If you are wondering where these locations are, click on the location link.
  1. You can use the "Request It!" button to:

  2. Requesting electronic copies:

    • You can order an electronic copy of a book chapter in a book we own through ILLiad.
    • You can order an electronic copy of an article in a print journal we own by clicking on the "Request a PDF (UCB only)" button in the record for the print journal (sample record).
  3. If an item is checked out or we do not own it, search the Prospector consortial catalog by clicking the brown "Search Prospector to find it in another library" button that appears on the left. You can order a copy of what you want online if is available to be loaned from another Prospector library. Circulation will contact you when it is available for pick-up.


Finding Secondary Sources in Library Databases


Secondary source databases allow you to identify the existence of materials whether or not the CU Libraries owns them. In addition to larger units like books, you can use them to find smaller units like articles and book chapters that you might not be able to find otherwise.


+ Selecting Secondary-Source Databases


The standard secondary source databases for history research are America: History and Life for US and Canadian history, and Historical Abstracts for the history of the rest of the world after 1450. These databases index a wide range of journals as well as books, book chapters, book and media reviews, and dissertations.


The fact that Historical Abstracts only goes back to 1450 illustrates the need to be able to use Find Articles & Databases: History, which lists a selection of databases by type of sources and geographic area, to identify databases appropriate for your need. Some things to think about when selecting a database: Are you looking for primary or secondary sources? Covering what area of the world? During what time period?


Major databases you could find in Find Articles & Databases that could help you in this class are:

International Medieval Bibliography Online

Bibliography of the European Middle Ages (c. 400-1500). Indexes articles on medieval subjects in journals, Festschriften, conference proceedings, and collected essays. Covers all aspects of medieval studies within the period 450 to 1500 for Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. CU



Bibliography of interdisciplinary literature pertaining to the Middle Ages and Renaissance (400-1700). CU


L'Annee Philologique

An online index to research on all aspects of greco-roman antiquity, from prehistory to 800 AD. Indexes books, journal articles, dissertations, and conference proceedings covering a broad range of classical subjects, including language, literature, archaeology, history, law, philosophy, science, and technology. CU


Humanities Full Text
Full text or abstracts of articles, interviews, obituaries, bibliographies and reviews in Archaeology, Art, Classical Studies, Dance, Film, Folklore, Gender Studies, History, Literary and Social Criticism, Literature, Music, Performing Arts, Philosophy, Religion, and Theology. May be searched concurrently with Social Sciences Full Text. CU


+ No Full Text? - Where to Look Next

Some results will have a link to full text and others will have the "Find It at CU" icon. When no full text is available, use this icon to search for full text in our collections, in either electronic or print, by searching Chinook.




For articles, be sure to note the citation information so you know what volume and year of the journal you are seeking. Your next steps in "Find It at CU" are:


  • Search for an electronic or print copy of the journal by searching Chinook by ISSN or Title under "Library Catalog"
  • If you do not find electronic but we own print, you can order an electronic copy by clicking on the "Request a PDF (UCB only)" button in the record for the print journal (sample record)
  • If we do not own either, order an electronic copy from another library under "Articles", through ILLiad (document delivery/ILL). Please be sure to indicate a realistic date by which you can last use the material.

Books, Book Chapters, DVDs...


Do a Title search in Chinook to see if the CU Libraries hold it.


  • You can order an electronic copy of a book chapter we own through ILLiad



Unless you are doing comprehensive research on a topic, it will probably not be worth your while to pursue the loan of a dissertation. The citations in America: History and Life and Historical Abstracts are to Dissertation Abstracts, which only contains, well, an abstract. If you're interested in looking at the abstract, and potentially a preview of the first pages of a dissertation, you can search ProQuest Dissertations & Theses.


If we do not have the material in question, order through Interlibrary Loan by visiting this page.

You can make requests for any item we do not hold through ILL. Visit this page for your basic ILL options. Please note the decision to loan items is up to the holding library. How much time it takes to fill the request can range from 24 hours to 3 weeks, depending. Articles and book chapters are generally faster than books.


The ILLiad interlibrary loan system is used to make requests:

  • Log in using your Identikey, and submit the required information. Also, the more of the non-required information you can provide the easier it will be to expedite your request.
  • The first time you log in you will need to fill out your contact information.
  • If you enter ILLiad from a database like America: History and Life, it will often supply most of the required information automatically.
  • Specify a realistic "Not Wanted After Date". If you order an item and do not use it, the Libraries will have to pay for the loan anyway.

Still need help after trying the strategies listed on this guide? Or can't figure out how to use a particular resource? Here are some options for further assistance:


+ From the Libraries


  • How Do I...? helpful web guides on a variety of research-related topics

  • Ask Us! email, chat, text, and phone reference services are available extended hours

  • Walk-up reference services at the Research Desk on the 2nd floor of Norlin Library as well as at some branch libraries (see "Hours Staffed")


+ From Me